Using a novel dataset, we analysis the spatio-temporal dynamics of income per capita across 34 provinces and 514 districts in Indonesia over the 2010–2017 period.
By applying a non-linear dynamic factor model, this article tests the club convergence hypothesis using a novel dataset of income at the district level. The results show significant five convergence clubs.
Across ASEAN regions, almost 60 percent of the differences in GDP per capita can be predicted by a luminosity-based measure of GDP. Based on this measure, regional inequality within most countries has not significantly decreased, spatial dependence is increasing, and spatial clusters (hotspots and coldspots) cross multiple national boundaries.
This paper studies regional convergence and spatial dependence of homicides and personal injuries in Colombia. In particular, through the lens of both classical and distributional convergence frameworks, two spatial scales are contrasted: municipalities and states.