convergence clubs

Disparities in Regional Productivity, Capital Accumulation, and Efficiency across Indonesia: A Club Convergence Approach

Except for aggregate efficiency, we reject the hypothesis that all provinces would eventually converge to a common steady-state path in terms of labor productivity, physical capital, and human capital. Low efficiency is still a problem for Indonesia

Regional Efficiency Convergence and Efficiency Clusters: Evidence from the provinces of Indonesia 1990–2010

Results from the distributional convergence approach indicate the existence of two local convergence clusters within the overall and pure efficiency distributions.

Lack of Global Convergence and the Formation of Multiple Welfare Clubs across Countries: An Unsupervised Machine Learning Approach

The paper incorporates some recent developments from the unsupervised machine learning literature to re-evaluate the cross-country convergence hypothesis in a context beyond GDP. The application of a distribution-based clustering algorithm suggests the formation of three local convergence clubs.