club convergence

Regional income disparities, distributional convergence, and spatial effects: Evidence from Indonesian regions 2010–2017

Using a novel dataset, we analysis the spatio-temporal dynamics of income per capita across 34 provinces and 514 districts in Indonesia over the 2010–2017 period.

Regional income disparities and convergence clubs in Indonesia: New district-level evidence

By applying a non-linear dynamic factor model, this article tests the club convergence hypothesis using a novel dataset of income at the district level. The results show significant five convergence clubs.