Across ASEAN regions, almost 60 percent of the differences in GDP per capita can be predicted by a luminosity-based measure of GDP. Based on this measure, regional inequality within most countries has not significantly decreased, spatial dependence is increasing, and spatial clusters (hotspots and coldspots) cross multiple national boundaries.
This paper studies regional convergence and spatial dependence of homicides and personal injuries in Colombia. In particular, through the lens of both classical and distributional convergence frameworks, two spatial scales are contrasted: municipalities and states.
Except for aggregate efficiency, we reject the hypothesis that all provinces would eventually converge to a common steady-state path in terms of labor productivity, physical capital, and human capital. Low efficiency is still a problem for Indonesia
Relative to the US, labor productivity of the median country has been mostly stagnant, while cross-country disparities have drastically increased. By including the commonly unaccounted covariance between capital and aggregate efficiency into the analysis, disparities in aggregate efficiency explain most of the disparities in labor productivity across countries